• 1/18/2023 9:31:22 AM

From Education 1.0 to Education 4.0

Education 4.0 is a technique of learning that is connected with the fourth industrial revolution and focuses on transforming the future of education through advanced technology and automation.

It is also an inclusive and lifelong approach to education that emphasizes student responsibility for skill-building, with teachers and mentors as facilitators. Schools and universities must prepare their students for a world in which cyber-physical systems are ubiquitous across all industries if they are to continue to produce successful graduates. This entails incorporating technology into the curriculum and altering the learning process entirely.

Brief History of Education

Education 1.0

Education 1.0 is a traditional teaching method where the teacher is the sole source of knowledge and the student is only a passive recipient. This method is typically used in physical classrooms and does not involve any technology. The teacher decides what the students should learn, without considering their individual needs or interests.

This is an authoritarian teaching system, the student is expected to be passive and the teacher is the leader who imparts knowledge.

Education 2.0

Education 2.0 is an evolution of traditional teaching methods, where there is an increased use of technology in the classroom. It includes the use of communication and interactive tools, such as televisions and radios, to share learning resources, and projectors to display educational materials like slides. This framework allows a more engaging and interactive learning experience for students.

However, the traditional exam-based approach is still heavily relied upon, where the emphasis is on memorizing information rather than understanding it.

Many education institutions claim to prioritize learning and learning outcomes, but it remains more of a concept on paper than a reality in practice.

Education 3.0

Education 3.0 is a teaching framework in which the teacher acts as a guide and mentor, rather than a traditional lecturer. This approach combines both traditional classroom instruction and online learning methods. It emphasizes self-directed learning, problem-solving, creativity, and interaction between teachers and students.

Information Technology (IT) is widely used in education, allowing for the implementation of blended learning, flipped classrooms and e-learning platforms.

The students are encouraged to take an active role in their own learning, through research and self-directed study.

Education 4.0

Education 4.0 is considered to be the most advanced and innovative form of education framework. It is still in development and focuses on providing students with the ability to learn anytime, anywhere.

Education 4.0 emphasizes project-based and hands-on learning methods, where students are evaluated based on their work, rather than traditional exam-based assessments.

It is being implemented in various ways, for example, using social media platforms such as YouTube to create educational videos, conducting webinars through Zoom with the participation of teachers, students and industry experts, and using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and chatbots to provide quick responses to students' inquiries.

Learning is done both inside and outside the classroom, with a focus on developing skills during class time. Personalized teaching and learning is emphasized, with a shift from traditional "Learning Plans" to "Creativity Plans".

Critical Skills of Education 4.0

As Huk underlines in his article, Education 4.0 can be seen as the implementation of transhumanism and raises important questions: What are the social expectations of Education 4.0 and what are the concerns about making the idea of this education model a reality?

While it's useful to raise and discuss such questions from different aspects throughout the implementation process, it is also important to note that the successful implementation of Education 4.0 requires a new perspective on human development as well as active participation from parents and teachers.

According to the WEF Annual Meeting, “problem-solving, collaboration and adaptability are the three critical skills that Education 4.0 must impart to students.”


Problem-solving involves approaching problems with curiosity, identifying the root cause, brainstorming solutions, experimenting and testing, scaling up the best solution, and continuously monitoring it. It also incorporates building and utilizing skills such as creativity, data analysis, perseverance, and critical thinking.

Educators can help students develop problem-solving skills by creating an environment where students are encouraged to solve problems independently and are given strategies to refer to when stuck.


Collaboration is about working well with others, whether leading or being part of a team. Effective collaborators build relationships with people of different backgrounds, personalities, and working styles, and they are respectful communicators. They are also willing to change their minds when presented with evidence that contradicts their initial beliefs.

A report by Pearson Education and the Partnership for 21st Century Learning recommends building three elements of collaboration into everyday classroom activities: interpersonal communication, conflict resolution, and task management.

To design a collaborative-learning classroom, it recommends organizing students into different groups for various tasks and projects, rotating roles among students, and teaching students how to conduct peer evaluations that provide honest and constructive feedback.


Adaptability is the ability to adapt to new situations and realities, which includes being comfortable with uncertainty, sudden changes, and unfamiliar circumstances, and the ability to make effective decisions and develop innovative solutions under pressure.

It also involves shifting seamlessly from following to leading and welcoming opportunities to learn new topics, master new skills, and test oneself.

An Australian research team led by Andrew J. Martin has been studying students' responses to uncertainty, novelty and change for the last decade, noting that learning to adapt requires cognitive, behavioral, and emotional adjustments that include developing resilience, buoyancy, and self-regulation.


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